Phosphate base fertilizer industry is using graphite equipment in their processes with phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid.
All phosphate fertilizers are obtained by extraction from minerals containing the anion PO43−. In rare cases, fields are treated with the crushed mineral, but most often more soluble salts are produced by chemical treatment of phosphate minerals. The most popular phosphate-containing minerals are referred to collectively as phosphate rock. The main minerals are fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F (CFA) and hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH. These minerals are converted to water-soluble phosphate salts by treatment with sulfuric (H2SO4) or phosphoric acids (H3PO4). The large production of sulfuric acid as an industrial chemical is primarily due to its use as cheap acid in processing phosphate rock into phosphate fertilizer. The global primary uses for both sulfur and phosphorus compounds relate to this basic process.
The biggest graphite shell and tubes heat exchanger are used for phosphoric acid concentration process under vacuum. This process requires specific design to avoid erosion (media with high solid content), corrosion protection of steel shell in case of leak, tubes without cemented junction to improve reliability, tubes with low fouling accumulation, high velocity in tubes.
Equipment frequently used
Materials frequently used
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